Unlocking Destinies from the Courts of Heaven (Dissolving Curses that Delay and Deny Our Future)



Every one of us has a book in heaven with our destiny and purpose revealed in it. This book in Heaven is the reason we were created and exist on the earth. It is the Lord's passion to see us fulfil this destiny. Satan, on the other hand, is passionately desiring us not to fulfil this destiny and if he can stop our destiny, he can stop the purposes of God on the earth.


You saw who you created me to be before I became me!

Before I’d ever seen the light of day,

the number of days you planned for me

were already recorded in your book. Psalm 139:16


Chapter 1: Curses are Real


For many people, they have problems in their life that they consider normal. Many of these problems could, in fact, have spiritual roots and so getting free from the problem is not about trying harder, but addressing the spiritual issue. God wants us to experience the life He has created us for and the devil wants to steal it away.


A thief has only one thing in mind—he wants to steal, slaughter, and destroy. But I have come to give you everything in abundance, more than you expect —life in its fullness until you overflow! John 10:10 (TPT)


If you are like so many people, you live frustrated that you were created for more than you are experiencing. The reason for this is that Satan has placed curses on us that are stealing our futures. Knowing how to go into the Courts of Heaven is essential in unlocking our destinies by dissolving these curses. A curse is "a spiritual force used by the devil to sabotage success and futures". Curses cause frustration as things do not work out and you are always suffering from "hope deferred".


As curses are removed from your life you become able to dream of the future and no longer have an inability to move forward. Your dreams are no longer sabotaged and you have a passion for life and a real hope that good things will happen as you continue to trust God and move forward. Goding to the Courts of Heaven removes the legal right for curses to operate in your life. Satan is our adversary who is working hard to deny what is rightfully ours by seeking legal rights to devour. God is showing us how to put things legally in place in the Courts of Heaven to unlock curses through a legal process and not as a battlefield procedure. Jesus has dealt with every curse legally on the cross. This legal verdict has to be executed through the heavenly court's system. When it is executed into place, it can have functional power in our lives.


As we are led by the Spirit, He will guide us and empower us through His anointing to put in place the verdict that has been rendered. This breaks and dissolves the curses that have been operating over our lives. This takes and executes the finished works of the cross so the legal verdict of the death of Jesus has functional power over our lives and the curses that have stopped us achieving the destiny God has made us for. These curses can come from our families of origin and stop our success and future, having an impact on both our children and heritage. It affects our finances, marriages, health and everything that we hold important in our lives.


Once curses are removed from our lives, we can start walking in the destiny God has made us for. Nothing is impossible when these are removed.


Chapter 2: The Purposes of Curses


The key purpose of a curse is to sabotage our future and success. In Numbers 22:5-6 we read about Balaam wanting to curse God's people so they can be defeated. Curses completely destroy peoples lives and destinies. They do not stop until we stop them. A major thing Satan is doing is destroying families through curses. Marriages are being destroyed and children are being led away from their parents. God is wanting to touch the earth through families. Satan is wanting to stop generational blessings flowing.


God is calling us to bless those who persecute us; bless and do not curse (Romans 12:14) God has given us the authority to use it for good. We are called to undo curses that plague individuals, families, communities and nations. When these curses are removed people can once again move in the destiny God has planned for them.


Chapter 3: The Sources Of Curses


A curse is legal in nature and needs to have a cause to land. They are the result of sin, transgression and iniquity.


An undeserved curse will be powerless to harm you.

It may flutter over you like a bird,

but it will find no place to land. Proverbs 26:2 (TPT)


Sin means to "miss the mark" and "not share in the prize". Sin then causes us not to receive the inheritance that was intended for us by God. Even in our minds, we sin when we plan unrighteous things. The hidden things of our minds are even sins. Transgression is another word used and speaks of a revolt, rebellion and breaking away from authority. It is crossing over the lines and boundaries that have been created by God. When dealing with sin, it is not just the action we deal with, but the root cause of rebellion that comes from the heart that has allowed sin to occur. The effects of sin travel through bloodlines and affect generations. It is God's desire to break these curses, but it is our responsibility to take the intend and bring it to reality through our spiritual activity. We need to repent not only of our sins but those of our fathers if we are to achieve the destiny God has for us and our family.


When we do not deal with sin and iniquity, we allow our futures to be ruined. We allow curses a legal right to operate in our lives and cause four devastating effects on us:-

  1. Iniquity grants the legal right for Satan to tempt us in a given area. Generations repeat the sins of their fathers as the devil has the legal right to tempt successive generations with the same sins the fathers fell prey to. When the curse is broken we can still be tempted, but we now have the ability to say no to the temptation.

  2. Iniquity shapes our identity. Identity is "the innermost thoughts I think about myself". When we have a proper identity, we believe the things God believes about us. Iniquity distorts our beliefs as we start believing thing about ourselves that is different from what God believes. When curses are broken we can hear the Lord in a new way and feel HIs passion. We also no longer see ourselves as unworthy and are free to walk as He has created us.

  3. Iniquity warps the original intent of God. God's original intent for us which is written in the books of Heaven is no longer what determines our destiny. God's heart for us is that we seek to find what our purpose is that has been written in our book and work with Him to have it enacted on earth. Curses are able to be used by Satan when there is inequity in our bloodlines to take us away from our God-given intended purpose.

  4. The devil has the legal right to build cases that result in curses operating against us. Curses come when Satan has presented a legal case against us in the spirit realm.


Chapter 4: Signs and Traits of Curses.


We are often so used to living with curses that instead of dealing with them we live our lives where we accept them as a normal part of our lives. It is actually a spiritual dilemma. Jesus has dealt with the legal issues that allow these curses to operate in our lives. (See Galatians 3:13) In Revelations 22:3 we read that only in the millennial reign of Christ there will be no more curse. Until Christ returns, we can and must take up the legal, finished work of Jesus on the cross and go to the Courts of Heaven and have this verdict executed over our life personally. There are twelve traits that can show us that a curse is operating over our lives:-

  1. We have a negative mindset and mentality. We anticipate evil will happen to us. (Deuteronomy 28:66) The curse has fashioned how we see life and so we live without a vision for the future.

  2. You cannot escape it. Bad things just seem to happen to you all the time. There appears to be an evil conspiracy against you and because of this, you cannot succeed.

  3. You have no vision or purpose of life. You are living aimlessly. Once the curse has been lifted destiny and vision will explode from your spirit.

  4. There is a breakdown of marriages and homes. Divorce and drama in homes are curses that move from generation to generation.

  5. Children are taken captive. (Deuteronomy 28:41). They cease to be yours as Satan steals them. They are unable to live in the destiny God has for them.

  6. There is no prosperity. Much sowing produces a very small harvest. (Deuteronomy 28:38) The devouring force eats up the seed that has been sown. When a curse s broken, frustration and hard labour can be replaced with fruitfulness and prosperity.

  7. There is sickness that cannot be healed. The curse that legally allows the disease to exist in your body must be removed before the sickness will leave. (Deuteronomy 28:60-61) God as Judge must honour the legality of the spirit realm. We need to take away this legal right.

  8. There is no anointing or diminished effects of the anointing. We cannot have the full announcing until the curses over our lives have been broken.

  9. There are mental and emotional issues. (Deuteronomy 28:34) Often mental and emotional struggles can be traced to curses operating in the family line.

  10. You are stolen from. (Deuteronomy 28:31) The losses in your life can only be restored when the legal right of the curse has been revoked.

  11. You miss promotions (Deuteronomy 28:43). Others are promoted ahead of you. The curses keep God's people out of places of importance and influence. Satan is wanting to deny us promotions we have been destined to have.

  12. Prayers are not answered. (Deuteronomy 23:23). We read that the heavens will be as brass and the earth as iron.

God is calling us to discern how curses work over our lives. It is time to stop accepting things as natural and normal, but see that the things above are caused when legal curses are operating over our lives.


Chapter 5: Building Cases to Land Curses.


It is essential that we can see how Satan, the adversary, gathers evidence and builds cases against us and discovers the legal right to present them. Satan has a very well organized legal team and an investigative team that searches for evidence against us. Their job is to find and uncover anything that can be used to build cases against us for these curses to be able to land and cause damage to us and those around us. This can come through our sin and the sin through our bloodlines. When we become a threat to Satan, he commissions demonic powers to search bloodlines, build cases and take these cases to court so he gains the legal right to stop you from getting what is in your scroll or book (Pslam 139:16) When you are living in your destiny or what is written in your book, the Kingdom of God can be established through you. (Luke 22:31)


Many of us feel frustrated, unfulfilled and dissatisfied. The reason for this is that Satan has a case against us in the Courts of Heaven that denies us what is rightfully ours. Satan wants to stop your effectiveness for God on earth and stepping into the place you have been made to function. Satan is doing all he can to deny our destiny. This following passage is a very important example of how this works:-


 “So then, if you are presenting a gift before the altar in the temple and suddenly you remember a quarrel you have with a fellow believer, leave your gift there in front of the altar and go at once to apologize with the one who is offended. Then, after you have reconciled, come to the altar and present your gift.  It is always better to come to terms with the one who wants to sue you before you go to trial, or you may be found guilty by the judge, and he will hand you over to the officers, who will throw you into prison. Believe me, you won’t get out of prison until you have paid the full amount!” Matthew 5:23-26 (TPT)


We must deal with issues so the adversary does not have a case against us. Our offerings must be given from a pure heart, out of worship and a passion forth Lord. The testimony of our offering grants God the right to remove curses from the earth that are operating. We need this offering to say the right thing.


An important thing to realize is that our words have incredible power when we are operating with authority in the spirit realm. Word curses spoken by us or others carry great consequences. We need to be very careful what we say and also take the curses of others and have them broken in the Courts of Heaven. We must use our spiritual authority correctly. Paul says his authority was for edification, bo build up not for destruction, to tear down.


Isaiah 54:17 is a very powerful verse:-


But I promise you, no weapon meant to hurt you will succeed, and you will refute every accusing word spoken against you. This promise is the inheritance of Yahweh’s servants, and their vindication is from me,” says Yahweh. Isaiah 54:17 (TPT)


Other people's words can fashion and form our destiny rather than what God wrote in the books of Heaven. Our heritage or birthright is to condemn or undo these words (disturb their purpose) We have to do four things to undo the words of those who carry spiritual authority:-

  1. Repent for the places I have spoken critically about others with no redemptive purpose. I have to deal with my words first.

  2. Forgive those who have spoken these words. Not only forgive but bless these people.

  3. Speak off ourselves the words that have been spoken over us. Ask in the Courts of Heaven that every word the accuser used against me would be annulled as they are not in agreement with God's heart towards me. In areas I am guilty I need to repent.

  4. Declare your destiny as written in the books of heaven thus replacing the verdict of their words with the destiny of God for your life.

We are set to give God the legal right to bless. Our role is to lift and dissolve curses, not enact them. When we understand this, we are ready to move into the Courts of heaven and unlock destinies.


Satan is looking for a legal right to devour. We need to walk closely with God in holiness so Satan's rights are revoked and we can walk in the destiny He has made us for.


Chapter 6: The Accuser's Place


The devil has lost his position in the Courts of Heaven. He has been cast down. (Revelation 2:10). Satan lost his position because of arrogance and pride which led to rebellion. When you read Luke 10:17-19 we read about the seventy that Jesus sent out. that had incredible power in the name of Jesus. Satan fell like lightning from heaven to earth. They could speak in Jesus' Name and demons obeyed, dethroning Satan from his hold on the earth. As we carry the authority of the Lord, Satan loses more and more of his influence and authority. Currently, Satan is operating from a cast down place. As he is not able to dwell in the third heaven any longer, he can only present a case against us if he is summonsed to the Courts. (Job 1:6-8)


When we operate in the Courts of Heaven and overcome, we can receive great rewards. When God purifies us, God can trust us with double or more than what we had lost. As we walk through the Court process we can receive everything intended to us by God.


In the Courts, Satan has a legal right to present cases against us. If God stops him, Satan can accuse God of being unrighteous and unjust. We must be clear that The Lord is not afraid of anything Satan brings to him as he knows the blood of Jesus can answer any case and free us from any accusation that can be used against us. Once things have been dealt with, they can not be raised by Satan again.


Chapter 7: The Accuser's Nature


When we understand the nature of the accuser and the tactics he uses we can better operate in the courts of Heaven. In Revelation 2:10 Satan is called "the accuser of our brethren". He always works from a legal position in the spirit realm. He builds cases and charges against us to deny our destiny. He also wants to devour us where he can. John 10:10 says he comes to rob, kill and destroy. It is really important to note that he can only do this when he has a legal right to bring a lawsuit against us. He cannot be stopped until we deal with Satan's proceedings in the Courts of Heaven. To be victorious we must know the tactics of the Devil. Understanding this legal dimension in the spiritual realm will unlock our destiny and stop us from being devoured.


One of the biggest forces Satan uses is shame. People live under the spirit of shame because of the accusations levelled at you in the Courts. We intuitively pick up in our spirit what the devil is saying about us in the Courts. Shame must be dealt with and resolved so it does not devour everything that is precious.


When we understand this, we must never use shame to manipulate other people. It fashions who people think about themselves and actually takes away our vision. Shame causes us to feel unworthy. When shame is removed there is the freedom to dream for the future.


We find something really interesting when we see the tactics Satan uses. He uses God's law and standards against us to accuse and bring curses. Every place we break the Law and disobey Satan keeps a record. We must repent, therefore, of everything we have done wrong we are aware of so our dreams, ambitions and destiny is not destroyed. We must know how to answer his accusations to silence his desire and secure our destiny.


The accuser sets a trap for us so he has a legal right to destroy us. This should propel us to a greater realm of holiness. When we give in to temptation we grant the accuser evidence to build a case against us. We should therefore not sin, but if we do then repent straight away so the devil does not have a legal right to devour.


When we read Romans 8:32-34 we read that Jesus is interceding for us and stands as our mediator. There is NO CHARGE that can stand against us when we humble our heart, repent and accept and declare His blood that was shed for us. When Jesus dealt with his accusers, he waited on the Holy Spirit to get the answer to the accusers. Going to the Courts must involve listening very clearly to the Holy Spirit so we can answer any and every accusation.


When we deal with the accuser in the Courts of Heaven and win the cases against him he leaves. once he has gone, we can ask for what Satan has been resisting. the Lord is now free to answer our prayers and release to us the destinies belonging to us. We can go to the Courts of Heaven and answer every accusation of Satan because of the blood and who Jesus is.


Chapter 8: Revoking the Rights of Principalities and Powers


When Robert Henderson was working with countries, he realised that there were practices and activities that had happened in the past that had stopped groups of people being able to achieve the plans and purposes that God had for them. Having the fullness of the Kingdom manifested now was the thing that was the most important. The goal was to break the curses that allowed Satan to stop God's plans and blessings. The manifestation of the Kingdom of God comes when the "accuser" is silenced and his complaints and accusations are removed. God is us calling us to remove the legal right for Satan to stop our destines and release God to fully demonstrate who He is on the earth.


We can operate in the Courts on two levels. We can go before the Courts on an individual level and cleanse our bloodline. There is a second level we can deal with and that is on a cultural level. Cultures are held captive based on the iniquity or sin in their bloodline. The god of the age has a legal right to blind the people and so there is a blocking of people to hearing the Word of God. An interesting example of this is Mark 11:13-14 where Jesus curses a fig tree for not having fruit. Just after that on the Day of Pentecost over 3,000 people were added to the number of Christ-followers. Jesus actually judged the spirit that was dominating and controlling Israel, not the actual tree. This released the people from under the spell of the religious and other spirits.


The way we will see a massive revival is to deal with the god of this age that is blinding the minds of so many. When the culture is freed from the legally empowered principalities and the legal powers revoked, a great revival will shake the earth.


When ministering are given garments that speak of our function, position and rank. We are given the role of priests unto God to grant god the legal right to bless and not to judge. We call upon God to show mercy instead of releasing judgement. The blood of Jesus gives us the legal right to be merciful and we have the honour of being part of this process.


God is cleaning up the lives of many people so they are qualified to present cases in His Courts. Satan is able to win when no one is found worthy to function into the Courts of Heaven. God needs us as Priests to step into His Courts and present cases that can remove curses from cultures and nations. Be encouraged. God can remove the iniquity of nations in one day. God is calling, commissioning and releasing His people into the Courts of Heaven to remove curses off nations to release a mighty move of God.


Chapter 9: Secrets to Bloodline Cleansing


To operate successfully in the Courts of Heaven we need to deal with any issue in our bloodline that will be used by Satan to attack us and deny us to function in the Courts. All legal rights for Satan to attack us need to be removed so we can be successful and he cannot attack us when we present these cases. There are some facts about cleaning our bloodlines:-


  1. When Jesus died on the cross, ALL our sins, transgressions and iniquities were dealt with. (Colossians 2:14) All we need is the cross of Jesus for the accusations and laws against us to be dismissed. When we do not know about sin, we just have to ask God to reveal any sin or issue that is giving Satan a legal right to act. We can ask for forgiveness for known sins and hidden things in our bloodlines.

  2. The execution of the finished works of the Cross is imperative to winning in the Courts and revoking curses. An unexecuted verdict has no power. The Holy Spirit empowers us to execute the finished works of Jesus into full place. We must be anointed authorized by the Holy Spirit to take what Jesus did on the cross and silence every accusation. We can only win when we know how to operate. When the accuser brings accusations against us, we repent and say "Do not allow my sins, and transgressions and iniquities to stop the destiny written for me in the books of Heaven".The blood of Jesus allows God to forgive, bless and speak on my behalf. We need to humble ourselves before the Living God and ask every transgression, sin and iniquity be washed away by the precious blood of the Lamb. Taking the finished works of the Cross and answering every accusation that is used allows God to cut off any legal right Satan has to stop God releasing His full destiny in our lives and the lives of cultures and nations.

  3. We need to know our bloodline goes back all the way to Adam and Eve. We must pray "I lay my life down through my father and mother all the way to Adam and Eve" We give the Holy Spirit permission to search out anything the enemy could use to build a case against us.

  4. We should investigate what we can with natural knowledge. We can discover iniquitous patterns as we explore the generations that came before us and the effect they have had on our lives. As we search, God grants supernatural knowledge.

  5. We ask God for supernatural knowledge. This could be through dreams and visions. When God reveals these things, God can free people, families, cultures and nations from curses and secure their destinies.

  6. When it is possible to connect with people with seeing gifts or prophetic people who can help in the process. These people can help with bloodline issues.

  7. Use Colossians 2:14 to help cleanse your bloodline. Use all the knowledge God has given you naturally and supernaturally. Ask that anything known, unknown to be washed, cleansed and forgiven by the blood. Your faith in the finished works of the Cross has great power.

 He cancelled out every legal violation we had on our record and the old arrest warrant that stood to indict us. He erased it all—our sins, our stained soul—he deleted it all and they cannot be retrieved! Everything we once were in Adam has been placed onto his cross and nailed permanently there as a public display of cancellation. Colossians 2:14


Chapter 10: The Prophetic in the Courts of Heaven


When presenting cases in the Courts of Heaven to undo curses, it is important to understand the prophetic. When we see and perceive prophetically into the Spirit realm we will see real breakthroughs in the spirit. When we are operating prophetically we are able to best operate in the Courts of Heaven. Working in the prophetic is an essential component of working in the Courts of Heaven.


To start operating in the courts of Heaven, you need to learn the proper protocols of the spirit realm. If you do not know these, you can get yourself into big trouble. Mature people learn to discern prophetically both good and evil. Working prophetically is something we need to pursue and work hard to develop the prophetic giftings that are waiting to be grown in so many people.


One of the key functions of prophesying is to discern what is written in the books of heaven and then present this in the Courts as a case. The prophet can pray prophetically, make petitions, decreeing and even prophesying. Another reason is that in Revelation 19:10 it says "for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy". Testimony means evidence given. Jesus is giving evidence from His position of High priest, Mediator and Intercessor in the Courts of Heaven. He is giving God, the Judge, every legal thing necessary for God's will to be done.


One of the greatest or ultimate purposes of God is to get heaven and earth operating together again, is it did in the Garden of Eden. The encounters in the Courts of Heaven are a foretaste of what it will be like and will become something we long for and expect.


God is calling His Church to grow and mature in the way we work in the spiritual realm. We are becoming a people that will be able to prophesy in agreement with Jesus' testimony and present cases out of the books of Heaven with a preciseness that will allow Heaven to rule. Get ready for an exciting release of the prophetic.


Chapter 11: New Levels of the Prophetic for Courtroom Function


The understanding of the Courts of Heaven and how to operate in the Courts prophetically is essential for God's will to be done. He is bringing a major release of the prophetic on earth now. Destinies are being unlocked as His prophets are entering the Courts of Heaven. There are five key truths to operating in the prophetic and presenting cases in the Courts of Heaven:-


  1. God is releasing angelic empowerment. (Zechariah 4:1-2). An angel of prophetic awakening has been released in the Body of Christ to release us into a new phase of growth in prophetic abilities. We must desire, pursue and move with God's angelic presence in this hour.

  2. We must ask for the book. (Revelation 10:8-9) God is releasing people to stop despising of what God has ordained in our history and to be freed up to get their book. Once you have the book you can unlock destiny.

  3. The books must be open. (Revelation 10:8) The book was open and then John was able to receive revelation from them. When books are closed and sealed we can receive no revelation. Books are closed because of false worship. This means they draw near with their lips but their hearts are far from them. We must repent from this false worship. God is calling us to have hearts full of love and a passion for Him before our books can be opened.

  4. Tears open the book (Revelation 5:2-5). Our tears of intercession open the books, releasing prophecies, decisions from the Courts of Heaven and an exciting future.

  5. The word released is sweet in the mouths who declare it. (Revelation 10:9-10) Sweetness means it is a good word. The word brings life. Prophesy is declaring the good word of God and must be spoken carefully to be true to what God is saying.

  6. The word made John's stomach bitter. (Revelation 10:9) It means that once eaten, it has to be released (spewed forth). We cannot help but prophesy. It is released in power and we prophesy from the destiny written in the books before time. This process unlocks destinies.


Chapter 12: Strategies and Protocols for Unlocking Destinies for the Courts of Heaven.


God is wanting to cut off the curses that are operating in every sphere of this world including individuals, marriages, families, towns, countries and nations. God knows our limitations and is pleased when we step out in faith to operate in the Courts of Heaven. Understanding that we approach God in three ways and how we approach Him in the Courts is essential. We approach God as Father (Luke 11:2), Friend (Luke 11:5-8 and Judge (Luke 18:1-8). For the first two, there is no real protocol as He receives us openly. As a judge in the judicial system there are behaviours and procedures that must be abided by. We need to:

  • Ask for the Courts to open. we need a fear of the Lord when we come into His courts. It is a very serious place and we honour the Lord who is the Judge of all to grant us entrance to the Courts. We enter with humility and boldness.

  • Prophetically present our case based on what is written in the books of Heaven about our destinies. We release what God has spoken to us.

  • Bring the case for our destiny in the Courts based on His Purpose and not our need. This is essential. This is the request and prophetic declaration.

Moses made his appeal in the Courts of Heaven based on three things:-


He appeals to God that they are His people.

His reputation.

He reminds God of the covenant and promises made to Abraham. He appeals to God on the basis of His character and integrity.


Demand "discovery". Satan is asked to show the evidence they have and manifest whatever they would use against us. What has been said or done to allow the curses to land and for him to use to resist our destiny?

Deal with accusations and repent where needed and make decrees where needed. When the legal accusations are removed, then there must be a speaking off of any curse that is there because of them. (Mark 11:23)

Walk out the process knowing things have been arranged in the spirit.


Just because you have won a victory in the courts of Heaven does not mean there will not be a struggle to move into it. The victory means we can walk out our destiny which is now sure. Romans 8:26-28 says


26 And in a similar way, the Holy Spirit takes hold of us in our human frailty to empower us in our weakness. For example, at times we don’t even know how to pray or know the best things to ask for. But the Holy Spirit rises up within us to super-intercede[a] on our behalf, pleading to God with emotional sighs too deep for words.

27 God, the searcher of the heart, knows fully our longings, yet he also understands the desires of the Spirit, because the Holy Spirit passionately pleads before God for us, his holy ones, in perfect harmony with God’s plan and our destiny.

28 So we are convinced that every detail of our lives is continually woven together to fit into God’s perfect plan of bringing good into our lives, for we are his lovers who have been called to fulfil his designed purpose. Romans 8:26-28 (TPT)


God is teaching us to pray by the Spirit and through the Spirit so everything works out together for good. When we go into the Courts of Heaven and see things dealt with and arranged for our destiny and His purpose. What is done in the Spirit will then work out in th natural. It may work straight away or it may take some time to work out. No matter how long it takes, our destines are now unlocked.

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He has rescued us completely from the tyrannical rule of darkness and has translated us into the kingdom realm of his beloved Son. Colossians 1:13. (TPT)

©2018 by Timothy Peden.